That and which we are confused of. Here’s an analysis of the usage of “that” and “which” and some deflunking of prescriptivist rules.
This is quite a long post about a distinction some people make between that and which as relative pronouns — an oft-disputed point of English usage. Feel free to skip ahead if you’re familiar with the territory.
Restrictive clauses (aka defining or integrated relative clauses) provide information that’s essential to a sentence. Take this one:
The bike that I keep in the garage is ideal for short trips.
The underlined clause is integral to the sentence, for reasons context would normally make clear. For example, there may be an implication that I have access to other bikes, so the restrictive clause defines or restricts what bike I’m talking about.
Non-restrictive clauses (also non-defining or supplementary relative clauses) are bound less tightly to the sentence: they can be removed without changing its essential point. Thus:
The bike, which I keep in the garage, is ideal for short trips.
Here, there’s only…
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